Central Nervous System Parts And Their Functions – The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord. Our brain has two main functions, which are to control behavior and to control the behavior of the body. However, the brain cannot do this alone as it needs to receive information from the body’s senses, which it receives through communication with the spinal cord.
The CNS is called “central” because in addition to occupying the central position of the body, the CNS is the most important part of the nervous system for maintaining and creating processes.
Central Nervous System Parts And Their Functions
The central nervous system consists of three main parts which are the brain, spinal cord and nerve cells:
Central Organ Of The Human Nervous System Brain Anatomy Stock Illustration
The brain performs functions such as forming memories, moving and knowing. The human brain has three main parts: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brainstem.
The brainstem is located at the base of the brain and is one of the oldest parts of the brain, and consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
The cerebellum is at the top of the brainstem, which monitors and controls motor behavior, especially automatic movements and balance. The brain of some animals, such as amphibians, consists of the brainstem and the cerebellum.
The cerebrum is the most recently developed part of the human brain and is the largest part of the brain (constitutes about 85% of the total weight).
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The brain is divided into two cerebral hemispheres that work together to produce different functions such as voluntary processes, speech, conscious thought and cognition.
The left side is responsible for controlling movements on the right side of the body, while the right side is responsible for controlling movements on the left side of the body.
The top of the brain is covered by the cerebral cortex, commonly called gray matter. Gray matter is a thin layer of tissue, about 3 mm thick, that contains billions of neurons. Gray matter is where memory is stored, perception occurs and information is processed.
The neurons of the gray matter are connected to other parts of the brain by a network of nerves called the white matter, so named because of the whiteness of the substance that protects it.
The Peripheral Nervous System
Gray matter is wrinkled in a different way: full of bumps separated by grooves. A bump in the brain is called a gyrus, or gyrus in the plural. The channels in the brain are called fissures. The fissures and turns increase the amount of space available in the cerebral cortex, ultimately increasing the number of neurons it can contain.
Animals with large, highly functional brains such as humans and other primates have more complex brains and thus larger cerebral cortices.
The spinal cord is a long, thin collection of neurons attached to the base of the brain (brain stem), which runs the length of the spinal column. The spinal cord contains circuits of neurons that can control some of our simplest actions, such as moving our arm away from a hot spot, without input from the brain.
The CNS communicates with the rest of the body through nerves, which are bundles of fibers that send signals to and from the CNS. The nerves attached to the spinal column make up the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Nerve roots arise from the spinal cord and travel throughout the body, carrying messages back and forth between the brain and peripheral nerves.
Autonomic Nervous System
The central structure of the spinal cord is made up of gray matter and the outer tissues are made up of white matter. Within the column, there are 30 segments, each belonging to one of four categories:
In order for messages to be transmitted throughout the CNS and body, there are billions of cells that contribute to the functioning of the brain and spinal cord.
Neurons, or nerve cells, connect to each other to send and receive messages in the brain and spinal cord. Neurons work together to transmit sensory information to the brain and are responsible for decision making, emotion and muscle action.
There are approximately 86 billion neurons in the CNS, and thousands of different types have been identified that perform different functions. Each neuron consists of a cell body (soma), axons and dendrites.
Peripheral Nervous System: What It Is And How It Works
Glial cells are non-neuronal cells in the CNS that do not send messages but instead protect and support neurons. Glial cells account for 90% of all cells in the CNS. There are three types of glial cells in the CNS: astrocytes, microglial cells and oligodendrocytes.
Astrocytes are the main supporting cells of the CNS that make and secrete proteins called neurotrophic factors (which support the growth and survival of neurons). These types of cells also help remove harmful proteins and chemicals that can damage neurons.
Microglia cells are responsible for removing damaged neurons and infections and are important in maintaining CNS health. They also produce molecules called cytokines that regulate cellular immunity in response to injury.
Oligodendrocytes are responsible for producing a fatty substance called myelin, which is used as a protective covering around the axons of neurons. Myelin is essential for neurons to transmit electrical messages much faster than neurons that are not covered by myelin.
Functions Of The Nervous System (video)
Since the central nervous system is essential for various functions as well as survival, it is highly protected. The brain is enclosed by the skull and the spinal cord runs through a column of hollow bones known as vertebrae.
In addition to this, the brain and spinal cord are also protected by a set of three-layered membranes called the meninges (the main regions are the pia mater, arachnoid, and dura mater).
To ensure that the brain and spinal cord do not come into direct contact with any bones in the skull or vertebrae, they float in a clear liquid called cerebrospinal fluid.
Cerebrospinal fluid fills the space between the two meninges, and circulates within the ventricles of the CNS, providing a layer around the brain and spinal cord, protecting them from injury.
Somatic Nervous System
Olivia Guy-Evans obtained her BA in Educational Psychology from Edge Hill University in 2015. She then obtained her MA in Educational Psychology from the University of Bristol in 2019. Olivia has been working as a support assistant for adults with learning disabilities. Bristol for the past four years.
Simply Psychology content is for informational and educational purposes only. Our website is not intended to be a substitute for medical professional advice, diagnosis or treatment. In biology, the old theory of the nervous system recognizes that it is the most complex organ of an animal that organizes its behavior and solid information by sending signals. to and from different parts of your body. The nervous system detects changes affecting the body, working together with the nervous system to respond to such events.
Nerves first appeared in worm-like creatures 550 to 600 million years ago. However, this traditional theory has been challenged in recent decades by discoveries about the existence and use of electronic signals in plants.
Based on these findings, some scientists have suggested that plant nerves do exist and that the scientific field called plant neurobiology should be developed.
Nervous System Overview
This proposal has caused controversy in the scientific community between those who think we should talk about plant health and those who are against it.
The instability of the positions in the scientific debate of both parties led to the proposed resolution of the dispute, which involves redefining the concept of genetics using only biological methods and avoiding phylogenetic methods.
In vertebrates it has two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord. The PNS is made up primarily of nerves, which are closed bundles of long fibers, or axons, that connect the CNS to all parts of the body. The nerves that send signals from the brain are called motor nerves or effert nerves, while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sorry or affert nerves. Spinal nerves are mixed nerves that perform all functions. The PNS is divided into three distinct subsystems, the somatic, autonomic, and peripheral nervous systems. Somatic nerves mediate voluntary movement. The autonomic nervous system is further divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathetic nervous system is activated in emergencies to gather energy, while the parasympathetic nervous system is activated when the body is at rest. The nervous system works to control the gastrointestinal system. Both the autonomic and nervous systems function inappropriately. The nerves that leave the skull are called cranial nerves while those that leave the back are called spinal nerves.
At the cellular level, the nervous system is defined by the development of a special type of cell, called a neuron, also known as a “nerve.”
Human Nervous System
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